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Civil Engineering

Kent Novakowski

Kent Novakowski

Professor

Office: Ellis-201

Queen's University
Kingston, ON K7L 3N6
Tel: (613) 533-6417
Fax: (613) 533-2128
kent.novakowski@queensu.ca

Kent Novakowski

Profile

Dr. Novakowski and his graduate students conduct research in the areas of fluid flow and contaminant migration in fractured rock. Recent work has focused on the field measurement and numerical simulation of aqueous phase contaminant transport in large discrete fractures which pervade the dolostones and limestones common to the sedimentary basins of North America. Dr. Novakowski also develops semi-analytical and analytical-element models for the simulation of solute transport, the interpretation of hydraulic tests, and the design of capture zones in sparsely-fractured bedrock. Recently, Dr. Novakowski has become involved in collaborative research projects that are focused on understanding sustainable water supply and regional groundwater flow in complex fractured rock environments.

Funding

NSERC, US Environmental Protection Agency, Environment Canada, Smithville Phase IV Bedrock Remediation Program (Province of Ontario), Ontario Power Generation, Mosaic Potash, Inc., Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Ontario Centers of Excellence (E-Tech), Ontario Research and Development Challenge Fund.

Courses

Dr. Novakowski runs the CIVL 884 Groundwater summer course at Kennedy Field Station - take a look at a recent course in this video:

Publications

Refereed Journal Articles Submitted, Accepted and in Press

Kozuskanich, J., Novakowski, K., and Anderson, B., 2010. Bacterial count variability in samples from multi-level bedrock monitoring wells. J. Ground Water, in press. 

Moore, B., and Novakowski, K., 2010. The relative influence of tortuous flow pathways and matrix diffusion during solute transport in fractured porous media at large scale. J. Cont. Hydrol.,
re-submitted.

Levison, J., Novakowski, K., Reiner, E., and Kolic, T., 2010. The identification of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in a sensitive bedrock aquifer. Hydrogeol. Jour., submitted

Refereed Journal Publications

Gleeson, T., Novakowski, K., and Kyser, T.K., 2009. Extremely rapid and localized recharge to a fractured rock aquifer. J. Hydrol., 376(2009), 495-509, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2009.07.056. 

Gleeson, T., Novakowski, K., Cook, P., and Kyser, K., 2009. Constraining groundwater discharge in a large watershed: integrated isotopic, hydraulic and thermal data from the Canadian Shield. Water Resour. Res., 45, W08402, doi:10.1029/2008WR007622.

Levison, J., and Novakowski, K. 2009. The impact of cattle pasturing on groundwater quality in bedrock aquifers having minimal overburden.Hydrogeol. J., 17(2):559'Äì569, DOI 10.1007/s10040-008-0385-z.

Praamsma, T., Novakowski, K., Kyser, K., and Hall, K. 2009. Using stable isotopes and hydraulic head data to investigate groundwater recharge and discharge in a fractured rock aquifer. J. Hydrol., 366(2009), 35-45, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2008.12.011.

Gleeson, T., and Novakowski, K., 2009. Identifying watershed-scale barriers to groundwater flow: lineaments in the Canadian Shield. Geol. Soc. Amer. Bulletin, 121(3/4), 333-347, doi: 10.1130/B26241.1

Ross, N., Novakowski, K., Lesage, S., Deschenes, L., and Samson, R. 2007. Development and resistance of a biofilm in a planar fractures during biostimulation, starvation and varying flow conditions. J. Environ. Eng. Sci., 6:377-388, doi:10.1139/S06-056.

West, A.C.F., Novakowski, K.S., and Gazor, S. 2006. A maximum likelihood estimator for bedrock fracture transmissivities and its application to the analysis and design of borehole hydraulic tests.Water Resour. Res., 42, W06409, doi:10.1029/2004WR003685.

Charbonneau, A.M., Novakowski, K.S. and Ross, N. 2006. The effect of a biofilm on solute diffusion in low permeability rock. J. Cont. Hydrol., 85(2006), 212-228.

Stephenson, K., and Novakowski, K. 2006.The analysis of pulse interference tests conducted in a fractured rock aquifer bounded by a constant free surface. J. Hydrol., 319(2006), 109-122.

Novakowski, K.S., Bickerton, G., Lapcevic, P.A., Voralek, J., and Ross, N. 2006. Measurement of groundwater velocity in discrete fractures. J. Cont. Hydrol., 82(2006), 44-60.

Stephenson, K.M., Novakowski, K.S., Davis,E., and Heron, G. 2006. Hydraulic characterisation for steam enhanced remediation conducted in fractured rock. J. Cont. Hydrol., 82(2006), 220-240.

West, A.C.F., Novakowski, K.S., and Gazor, S. 2005. Usefulness of core logging for the identification of conductive fractures in bedrock. Water Resour. Res., 41, W03018, doi:10.1029/2004WR003582.

West, M.R., Kueper, B.H., and Novakowski, K.S. 2004. Analytical solutions for solute transport in fractured porous media using a finite width strip source. Advances in Water Resources, 27(2004), 1045-1059.

Novakowski, K.S., Bickerton, G., and Lapcevic, P. 2004. Interpretation of injection-withdrawal tracer experiments conducted between two wells in a large single fracture. J. Cont. Hydrol., 73(2004), 227-247.

Oxtobee, J., and Novakowski, K. 2003. A numerical investigation of the principal processes governing the exchange of groundwater between a bedrock stream and a fractured rock aquifer. J. Groundwater,41(5), 667-681.

Van Stempvoort, D., Lesage, S., Novakowski, K., and Brown, S. 2002. Humic acid enhanced remediation of an emplaced diesel source in groundwater, Part 1: Pilot scale test. J. Cont. Hydrol., 54, 249-276 

Oxtobee, J., and Novakowski, K. 2002. A field study of groundwater/surface water interaction in a fractured bedrock environment. J. Hydrol., 269(2002), 169-193.

Lesage, S., Brown, S., Millar, K., and Novakowski, K. 2001. Humic acids enhanced removal of aromatic hydrocarbons from contaminated aquifers: Developing a sustainable technology. J. Environ. Sci. Health, 36 (8), 1515-1533.

Zanini, L., Novakowski, K., Lapcevic, P., Bickerton, G., Voralek, J., and Talbot, C. 2000. Regional groundwater flow in the fractured carbonate aquifer underlying Smithville, Ontario, inferred from combined hydrogeological and geochemical measurements. J. Groundwater, 38(3), 350-360.

Novakowski, K.S. and Bogan, J.D. 1999. A semi-analytical model for the simulation of solute transport in a network of fractures having random orientations. Int. J. Num. Analy. Meth. in Geomech, 23, 317-333.

Lapcevic, P.A., Novakowski, K.S., and Sudicky, E.A. 1999. The interpretation of a tracer experiment conducted in a single fracture under conditions of natural groundwater flow. Water Resour. Res.,35(8), 2301-2312.

Langer, V., Novakowski, K., and Woodbury, A. 1999. Sorption of trichloroethene onto stylolites. J. Contam. Hydrol., 40(1), 1-23.

Novakowski, K.S., Lapcevic, P.A., Voralek, J., and Sudicky, E.A. 1998. A note on a method for measuring the transport properties of a formation using a single well. Water Resour. Res., 34(5), 1351-1356.

Harris, S.R., Thomson, N.R., and Novakowski, K.S. 1998. The determination of the orientation of fracture planes in a weathered clay till using core samples. Can. Geotech. J., 35(2), 386-394.

Lesage, S., Xu, H., and Novakowski, K.S. 1997. Distinguishing natural hydrocarbons from anthropogenic contaminantion in groundwater. J. Groundwater, 35(1), 149-160.

Novakowski, K.S. and Bickerton, G.S. 1997. Measurement of the hydraulic properties of low- permeability rock in boreholes. Water Resour. Res., 33(11), 2509-2517.

Piggott, A.R., Bobba, A.G., and Novakowski, K.S. 1996. A case study in regional groundwater flow.ASCE J. Water Resour. Plan. Manag., 122(1), 1-10.

Piggott, A.R., and Novakowski, K.S. 1996. Determination of solution criteria for a semi-analytical model of solute transport. Computers and Geosciences, 22(4), 441-444.

Novakowski, K.S., and van der Kamp, G. 1996. The radial diffusion method. 2. A semi-analytical model for the determination of apparent diffusivity, porosity and adsorption. Water Resour. Res., 32(6), 1823-1830.

Piggott, A.R., Huynh, T.N.T., Lapcevic, P.A., and Novakowski, K.S. 1996. Automated analysis of hydraulic and tracer tests conducted in fractured rock. Hydrogeology Journal, 4(3), 84-93.

Novakowski, K.S., Lapcevic, P.A., Voralek, J., and Bickerton, G. 1995. Preliminary interpretation of tracer experiments conducted in a discrete rock fracture under conditions of natural flow. Geophys. Res. Lett., 22(11), 1417-1420.

Markle, J.M., Rowe, K.R., and Novakowski, K.S. 1995. A model for the constant-head pumping test conducted in vertically fractured media. Int. J. Num. Analy. Meth. in Geomech., 19(7), 457-473.

Novakowski, K.S., and Lapcevic, P.A. 1994. Field measurement of radial solute transport in a discrete rock fracture. Water Resour. Res., 30(1): 37-44.

Novakowski, K.S. 1993. Interpretation of the transient flow rate obtained from constant-head tests conducted in situ in clays. Can. Geotech. J., 30(4): 600-606.

Lapcevic, P.A., Novakowski, K.S., and Paillet, F.L. 1993. Analysis of flow in an observation well intersecting a single fracture. J. Hydrol., 151(1993): 229-239.

Raven, K.G., Novakowski, K.S., Yager, R.M., and Heystee, R.J. 1992. Supernormal fluid pressures in sedimentary rocks of Southern Ontario - Western New York State. Can. Geotech. J., 29 (1):80-93.

Novakowski, K.S. 1992. An evaluation of boundary conditions for one-dimensional solute transport, 1, mathematical development. Water Resour. Res., 28(9):2399-2410.

Novakowski, K.S. 1992. An evaluation of boundary conditions for one-dimensional solute transport, 2, column experiments. Water Resour. Res., 28(9):2411-2423. 

Novakowski, K.S. 1992. The analysis of tracer experiments conducted in divergent radial flow fields. Water Resour. Res., 28(12): 3215-3225.

Novakowski, K.S. 1990. Analysis of aquifer tests conducted in fractured rock: a review of the physical background and the design of a computer program for generating type curves. J. Groundwater, 28(1): 99-107. 

Novakowski, K.S. 1989. A composite analytical model for analysis of pumping tests affected by wellbore storage and finite thickness skin. Water Resour. Res., 25(9): 1937-1946.

Novakowski, K.S. 1989. Analysis of pulse interference tests. Water Resour. Res., 25(11): 2377-2387.

Raven, K.G., Novakowski, K.S., and Lapcevic, P.A. 1988. Interpretation of field tracer tests of a single fracture using a transient solute storage model. Water Resour. Res., 24(12): 2019-2032.

Novakowski, K.S., and Lapcevic, P.A. 1988. Regional hydrogeology of the Silurian and Ordovician sedimentary rock underlying Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada. J. Hydrol., 104: 211-236.

Novakowski, K.S., Gillham, R.W. 1987. Field investigations of the nature of water-table response to precipitation in a shallow water-table environment. J. Hydrol., 97: 23-32.

Novakowski, K.S., Flavelle, P.A., Raven, K.G., and Cooper, E.L. 1985. Determination of groundwater flow pathways in fractured plutonic rock using a radioactive tracer. Int. J. Appl. Rad. Isot., 35(5): 399-404.

Novakowski, K.S., Evans, G.V., Lever, D.A., and Raven, K.G. 1985. A field example of measuring hydrodynamic dispersion in a single fracture. Water Resour. Res., 21(8): 1165-1174.

Other Refereed Publications

Novakowski, K.S., Sudicky, E.A., and Lapcevic, P. 2007. Groundwater flow and solute transport in fractured media. In: Groundwater Engineering, 2nd Edition, Ed: J. Delleur, CRC Press.

Beatty, B., Conboy, M.-J., Lebedin, J., and Novakowski, K. 2006. Water well sustainability in Ontario 'Äì Expert panel report. Published by the Ontario Centre of Excellence, Available on-line at http://www.oce-ontario.org/documents/media/SWWI_Final_Jan30.pdf. 192 pp. 

Davis, E., Akladiss, N., Hoey, R., Brandon. B., Nalipinski, M., Heron, G., Carroll, S., Novakowski, K., and Udell, K.. 2005. Steam enhanced remediation research for DNAPL in fractured rock, Loring Air Force Base, Limestone, Maine. US Environmental Protection Agency, Report EPA/540/R-05/010, 190 pp.

Novakowski, K.S. 2000. Fate and transport in fractured rock. In: Standard Handbook of Environmental Science, Health, and Technology, Ed: J. Lehr, McGraw-Hill Inc., pp. 4.74-4.86.

Novakowski, K., Lapcevic, P., Bickerton, G., Voralek, J., Zanini, L., and Talbot, C. 1999. The development of a conceptual model for contaminant transport in the dolostone underlying Smithville, Ontario. Final report prepared for the Smithville Phase IV Remediation Program (Available on CD), 175 pp. 

Lapcevic, P.A., Novakowski, K.S., and Sudicky, E.A. 1998. Groundwater flow and solute transport in fractured media. In: Groundwater Engineering, Ed: J. Delleur, CRC Press, pp 17-1-17-39.

Novakowski, K.S., Lapcevic, P., and Bickerton, G. 1998. Hydrogeology of the Niagara Falls area: A field trip guide. GSA publication.

Novakowski, K.S. 1988. Comparison of fracture aperture widths determined from hydraulic measurements and tracer experiments. In: Proceedings of the 4th Canadian/American Conference on Hydrogeology, Ed: B. Hitchon and S. Bachu, NWWA, Dublin, Ohio, pp 68-80.

Papers Presented 

Novakowski, K.S., Knight, L., and Bayona, L., 2010. The development of biobarriers as a means of groundwater control at contaminated sites in fractured bedrock. In Proceedings of the Seventh International IAHS Groundwater Quality Conference, Zurich Switzerland, June 13 - 18, 2010.

Lambert, J., Blauw, M., Latil, M.-N., Novakowski, K., Knight, L., and Bayona, L., 2010. Bacteria help to change soil properties. In Proceedings of GeoFlorida 2010, ASCE Geo-Institute, West Palm Beach, Florida, Feb. 22-24, 2010.

Waddell, J.P., Field, J.R., Bennett, M., and Novakowski, K.S., 2008. Remediation of Chlorinated Ethene impacts within fractured crystalline rock. In Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, Monterey, CA, May 19-22, 2008.

Knight, L., and Novakowski, K., 2008. Biostimulation of groundwater microorganisms in fractured bedrock through nutrient addition: a field trial. First International BioGeoCivil Engineering Conference, June 23-25, 2008, Delft, the Netherlands.

Praamsma, T., and Novakowski, K., 2007. Using δ18O and δD to investigate groundwater-surface water interaction and recharge in a gneissic terrain. In Proceedings: 8th Joint CGS/IAH-CNC Groundwater Conference, Ottawa, Ontario, October 21-24, 2007, 8 p.

Kozuskanich, J.C., Novakowski, K.S. and Anderson, B.A. 2007. Assessing the impacts of residential onsite wastewater systems on drinking water quality in a small semi-urban lakeside village with bedrock wells.
In Proceedings: 8th Joint CGS/IAH-CNC Groundwater Conference, Ottawa, Ontario, October 21-24, 2007, 8 p.

Gleeson, T., and Novakowski, K. 2007. Identifying watershed-scale barriers to groundwater flow in the Canadian Shield.
In Proceedings: 8th Joint CGS/IAH-CNC Groundwater Conference, Ottawa, October 21-24, 2007, 8 p.

Novakowski, K, Milloy, C., Gleeson, T., Praamsma, T., Levison, J., and Hall, K.
2007. Groundwater recharge in a gneissic terrain having minimal overburden.
In Proceedings: 8th Joint CGS/IAH-CNC Groundwater Conference, Ottawa, October 21-24, 2007, 8 p.

Levison, J. and Novakowski, K. 2007. Agricultural impacts on groundwater in fractured bedrock - Tay River watershed.
In Proceedings: 8th Joint CGS/IAH-CNC Groundwater Conference, Ottawa, Ontario, October 21-24, 2007, 8 p.

Schauerte, M., Novakowski, K.S., and Moore B., 2007. A Full Aquifer Tracer Experiment Interpreted using a Mixed Numerical 'Äì Analytical Model in a Dolostone Aquifer. In Proceedings: 8th CGS/IAH-CNC Groundwater Conference, Ottawa, Ontario, October 21-24, 2007, 8 p.

Novakowski, K., Stephenson, K., Davis, E., Carroll, S., and Heron, G. 2004. Hydraulic characterization for steam enhanced remediation conducted in fractured rock. In A.R. Gavaskar and A.S.C. Chen (Eds.), Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, Monterey, CA, May 24-27, 2004.

Ledoux, C., Therrien, R., Novakowski, K., and Kirkwood, D. 2004. Investigation of the impact of fracture intersection on solute transport in fractured carbonate. In Proceedings of the 5th Joint CGS/IAH Groundwater Specialty Conference, October 24-27, 2004, Quebec, Canada, 8 p.

Ledoux, C., Therrien, R., Novakowski, K., and Kirkwood, D. 2004. Investigation of the impact of fracture intersection on solute transport in fractured carbonate. In Proceedings: 2004 NGWA/U.S. EPA Fractured Rock Conference: State of the Science and Measuring Success in Remediation, September 13-15, 2004, Portland, Maine, p. 836-847. 

Kenny, G., Therrien, F., Fortin, A., Novakowski, K. 2004. Large-scale solute transport modelling in discretely-fractured porous media.
In Proceedings: 2004 NGWA/U.S. EPA Fractured Rock Conference: State of the Science and Measuring Success in Remediation, September 13-15, 2004, Portland, Maine, p. 848-860.

Stephenson, K., Novakowski, K., Davis, E., Carroll, S., Heron, G., and Udell, K. 2004. A simple analytical model for heat flow in fractures 'Äì application to steam enhanced remediation conducted in fractured rock. In Proceedings: 2004 NGWA/U.S. EPA Fractured Rock Conference: State of the Science and Measuring Success in Remediation, September 13-15, 2004, Portland, Maine, p. 909. 

Novakowski, K.S., and Lapcevic, P.A. 2004. Site characterization for the Smithville Phase IV Bedrock Remediation Program. In Proceedings of the 5th Joint CGS/IAH Groundwater Specialty Conference, October 24-27, 2004, Quebec, Canada, 7 p.

Ross, N., Kennedy, C., Voralek, J., Lesage, S., Novakowski, K., and Samson, R. 2003. Biofilm Development in a Large-scale Planar Fracture, Paper 2C-41. In A.R. Gavaskar and A.S.C. Chen (Eds.), Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, Monterey, CA, May 20-23, 2002.

Oxtobee, J., and Novakowski, K.S. 2001. A study of groundwater/surface water interaction in a fractured rock environment. In Proceedings of Fractured Rock 2001, Ed: B. Kueper, K. Novakowski, D. Reynolds, Toronto, Ont., March 26-28, 2001 (Proceedings on CD).

Ross, N., lapcevic, P., Lesage, S., Novakowski, K., Deschenes, L., and Samson, R. 2001. Biobarriers in fractured rock: concept development and experimental design. In Proceedings of Fractured Rock 2001, Ed: B. Kueper, K. Novakowski, D. Reynolds, Toronto, Ont., March 26-28, 2001 (Proceedings on CD).

Novakowski, K.S., Bickerton, G., and Lapcevic, P.A. 2001.In-situ measurements of groundwater velocity in discrete fractures and fracture networks. In Proceedings of Fractured Rock 2001, Ed: B. Kueper, K. Novakowski, D. Reynolds, Toronto, Ont., March 26-28, 2001 (Proceedings on CD).

Lapcevic, P., and Novakowski, K., 2001. The Hydrogeological Characterization of the Carbonate Bedrock underlying a contaminated site in Smithville, Ontario, Americana 2001, March 28-30, 2001, Montreal Quebec, p137-138.

Lapcevic P.A., and Novakowski, K.S. 2000. Hydraulic head and groundwater velocity variations in flat lying fractured sedimentary rock. In Proceedings of the 1st Joint, IAH-CNC and CGS Groundwater Specialty Conference, Montreal, Oct 15-18, 2000, pp. 11-16.

Novakowski, K.S., Lapcevic P.A., Oxtobee, J., and Zanini, L. 2000.Groundwater flow in the Lockport formation underlying the Smithville, Ontario area. In Proceedings of the 1st Joint, IAH-CNC and CGS Groundwater Specialty Conference, Montreal, Oct 15-18, 2000, pp. 49-54.

Novakowski, K.S., and Lapcevic, P.A. 1999. Development of a conceptual model for groundwater flow and contaminant transport in a horizontally-stratified carbonate rock using detailed hydraulic testing results. In Proceedings of the 1999 Contaminated Site Remediation Conference, Freemantle, Australia, March 21-25 , 1999, pp. 149-156.

Lapcevic, P., Novakowski, K., Bickerton, G., and Voralek, J. 1997. Hydraulic characterization of the fracture framework in carbonate rock underlying CWML site, Smithville, Ontario. Air and Waste management Association 90th Annual Meeting and Exhibition, June-8-13, Toronto, Ont.

Bogan, J., and Novakowski, K. 1996. A study of solute transport in crystalline rock using a semi-analytical model. in "Tools and Techniques in Rock Mechanics", Proceedings of the ISRM - North American Rock Mechanics Symposium, Montreal, Quebec, June 19-21, 1996, pp.1413-1419.

Lapcevic, P., Novakowski, K., and Sudicky, E. 1996. Interpretation of field-scale tracer experiments conducted under conditions of natural gradient in a discrete horizontal fracture.
in "Tools and Techniques in Rock Mechanics", Proceedings of the ISRM - North American Rock Mechanics Symposium, Montreal, Quebec, June 19-21, 1996, pp. 1407-1412.

Lesage, S., Novakowski, K., Xu, H., Bickerton, G., Durham, L., and Brown, S. 1995. A large scale aquifer model to study the removal of aromatic hydrocarbons from the saturated zone. in Proceedings Solutions'95, International Association of Hydrogeologists Congress, June 4-10, Edmonton, Alberta, (proceedings indexed alphabetically by author).

Lesage, S., Xu, H., Novakowski, K., Brown, S., and Durham, L. 1995. Use of Humic Acids to Enhance the Removal of Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Contaminated Aquifers. Part II: Pilot Scale. in Proceedings of the 5th Annual Symposium on Groundwater and Soil Remediation, October 2-5, Toronto, Ontario. 10 pp., Proceedings on CD-ROM.

Lapcevic, P.A., Reichart, T.M., and Novakowski, K.S. 1993. The interpretation of pumping tests conducted in vertically fractured rock using models developed for porous media. in Proceedings NGWA Eastern Regional Groundwater Issues, Sept. 27-29, 1993, pp 839-849.

Paillet, F.L., Novakowski, K.S., and Lapcevic, P.A. 1992. Analysis of transient flows in boreholes during pumping in fractured formations. in Soc. Prof. Well Log Analy. Annual Logging Symposium Transactions, 33rd, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, pp S1-S22.

Noor, I., Novakowski, K.S., and Egden, J. 1992. Soil gas surveys as a tool for delineating
pathways of natural hydrocarbon loading in southern Ontario: Implications for shallow groundwater. in Proceedings 1992 IAH Conference, May 10-14, Hamilton, Ont., 8 p.

Noor, I., Novakowski, K.S., and Egden, J. 1992. Structural controls on natural gas seepage in southern Ontario. in Proceedings 31st Annual Conference of the Ontario Petroleum Institute, Oct. 27-28, Niagara Falls, Ont., 9 p.

Novakowski, K.S. 1990. An evaluation of boundary conditions of mixing type for one-dimensional mass transport. In: Proceedings of the International Conference and Workshop on Transport and Mass Exchange Processes in Sand and Gravel Aquifers: Field and Modelling Studies, Ottawa, Ont., pp 304-316.

Lapcevic, P.A., Novakowski, K.S., and Cherry, J.A. 1990. The characterization of two discrete fractures in shale. In: Proceedings Tech. Trans. Conf., Min. Envir. Ont., Session C. Liq. Solid Waste, Toronto, Ont., Vol. II, pp 486-495.

Novakowski, K.S., and Cherry, J.A. 1989. The effect of wellbore dilution on the results of tracer experiments conducted in fractured rock. In: Proceedings Tech. Trans. Conf., Ministry of Env. Ont., Session C Liq. Solid Waste, Toronto, Ont., Vol. II, pp 68-77. 

Lapcevic, P.A., and Novakowski, K.S. 1989. The analysis of slug tests conducted in fractured sedimentary rock. In: Proceedings Eastern Regional FOCUS Conf., National Water Well Assoc., Kitchener, Ont.

Novakowski, K.S. 1988. Comparison of fracture aperture widths determined from hydraulic measurements and tracer experiments. In: Proceedings of the 4th Canadian/American Conference on Hydrogeology, Ed: B. Hitchon and S. Bachu, NWWA, Dublin, Ohio, pp 68-80.

Novakowski, K.S., and Cherry, J.A. 1988. Evaluating groundwater velocity in a low-permeability fractured shale. In: Proceedings Tech. Trans. Conf., Ministry of Env. Ont., Session C Liq. Solid Waste, Toronto, Ont., pp 273-282.

Novakowski, K.S., Raven, K.G., and Evans, G.V. 1985. A review of radionuclide migration experiments conducted in a plutonic rock environment at CRNL. In: Proceedings of the 17th Information Meeting of the Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program, Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., TR-299, Piniwa, Man., pp 123-140.

Novakowski, K.S., Evans, G.V., and Raven, K.G. 1985. Field experiments investigating radionuclide migration in plutonic rock. In: Proceedings Hydrogeology of Rocks of Low Permeability, part 1, International Association of Hydrogeologists, Tucson, Arizona, pp 345-357.

Raven, K.G., and Novakowski, K.S. 1984. Field investigations of solute transport properties of fractures in monzonitic gneiss. In: Proceedings of the International Groundwater Symposium on Groundwater Resources Utilization and Contaminant Hydrogeology, International Association of Hydrogeologists, Montreal, Que., 2: pp 507-516.

Raven, K.G., Novakowski, K.S., and Bottomley, D.J. 1984. Hydrogeologic research at the Chalk River Research Area. In: Proceedings of the 16th Information Meeting of the Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program, Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., TR-218, Piniwa, Man., pp 11-29.

Abstracts Presented

Praamsma, T.W., Novakowski, K.S., and Trimper, S.A. 2010. Rapid response in a gneissic bedrock fracture network to surface loading of nutrient- and pathogen-surrogate tracers in an agricultural watershed, Canada., IAH XXXVIII Congress, Krakow, Poland.

Trimper, S., Novakowski, K., Springthorpe, S., Sattar, S., Vidovic, S.,, and Aly, M. 2009. A study of human enteric virus presence in fractured rock wells in rural Canada. First International Conference on Microbial Transport and Survival in Porous Media, Niagara-on-the-Lake, ON, May 10-13, 2009.

Gleeson, T., Novakowski, K., Cook, P.G. and Kyser, T.K., 2009. Constraining groundwater discharge in a large watershed: integrated isotopic, hydraulic and thermal data. EOS Trans. AGU, 90(22), Spring Meet. Suppl., Abstract H72A-06.

Kozuskanich, J., Novakowski, K. and Anderson, B., 2009. Modeling flow through the sand pack: implications for groundwater sampling from multi-level monitoring wells in fractured bedrock aquifers. Eos Trans, AGU 90(22), Jt. Assem. Suppl., Abstract IA23A-06.

Kozuskanich, J., Novakowski, K. and Anderson, B., 2009. Should we be purging when sampling for fecal indicator bacteria in groundwater? Observations from tests conducted in multi-level bedrock monitoring wells. First International Conference on Microbial Transport and Survival in Porous Media.
Niagara-on-the-Lake, ON, May 10-13, 2009.

Praamsma, T.W., Trimper, S. and Novakowski, K.S., 2009. Surface to fracture transport of E. coli-sized microspheres and a conservative tracer in a fractured rock aquifer, Perth, Ontario. , First International Conference on Microbial Transport and Survival in Porous Media, Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario, May 10-13, 2009.

Praamsma, T.W. and Novakowski, K.S., 2009. Regional-scale pathogen transport in a fractured rock aquifer located in an agricultural watershed., Eos Trans, AGU 90(22), Jt. Assem. Suppl.

Levison, J., and Novakowski, K. 2009. Fractured bedrock aquifers and agriculture: importance of source protection in this vulnerable setting., 44th Central Canadian Symposium on Water Quality Research, Canadian Association on Water Quality and National Water Research Institute, Burlington,ON, 23-24 February.

Gleeson, T., Novakowski, K., and Kyser, T.K., 2008. Insignificant groundwater discharge to lakes in a large fractured rock watershed. EOS Trans. AGU, 89(53), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract OS51D-1277.

Villeneuve, S. A., and Novakowski, K. S., 2008. Measuring pore water δ2h and δ18O values as natural tracers for the migration of under-saturated, meteoric water across a mudstone confining unit using the radial diffusion method. EOS Trans. AGU, 89(53), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract H21B-0831.

Kozuskanich, J., Novakowski, K. and Anderson, B., 2008. The influence of pumping on observed bacterial counts in groundwater samples: Implications for sampling protocol and water quality interpretation. Eos Trans. AGU, 89(53), Fall Meeting Suppl., Abstract H43C-1015. 

Novakowski, K., Gleeson, T., Praamsma,, T., Levison, J., 2008. The limited sustainability of groundwater supplies in a Gneissic terrain having minimal drift cover. IAHR International Groundwater Symposium: Flow and Transport in Heterogeneous Subsurface Formations: Theory, Modelling & Applications. Istanbul, Turkey, June 18-20, 2008.

Novakowski, K.S. 2007. Sustainable water well infrastructure. A.D. Latornell Conservation Symposium, Alliston, Ontario, November 14-16, 2007.

Novakowski, K.S., Schauerte, M., and Moore, B. 2007. Seeking dominant flow pathways in fractured carbonate rock using tracer experiments conducted with in-situ detection. GSA Abstracts with Programs 39(6), Paper No. 191-8, GSA Annual Meeting, Denver, October 28-31, 2007. 

Novakowski, K.S. 2007. The effect of matrix diffusion on the results of large-scale tracer experiments in fractured dolomite. 2007 U.S. EPA/NGWA Fractured Rock Conference: State of the Science and Measuring Success in Remediation, Portland, Maine, September 24-26, 2007.

Bennett, M.S., Waddell, J.P., and Novakowski, K.S. 2007. Site Characterization in preparation for application of interim remedial technologies in a chlorinated ethene-contaminated fractured crystalline rock. 15th Annual David S. Snipes/Clemson Hydrogeology Symposium, April 16-18, Clemson University, SC. 

Bennett, M.S., Field, J.R., Waddell, J.P., Novakowski, K.S. 2007. site characterization in preparation for application of interim remedial technologies in a chlorinated ethene-contaminated fractured crystalline rock. BP RET Technical Exchange Meeting, June 4-6, San Diego, CA.

Bennett, M.S., Field, J.R., III, Waddell, J.P., Novakowski, K.S. 2007. Investigation and identification of a chlorinated ethene source zone in a fractured crystalline rock. 2007 U.S. EPA/NGWA Fractured Rock Conference: State of the Science and Measuring Success in Remediation, Portland, Maine, September 24-26, 2007. 

Bennett, M.S., Waddell, J.P., Field, J.R., III, Novakowski, K.S.. 2007. Preparation for enhanced bioremediation in a chlorinated ethene contaminated fractured crystalline rock. 2007 U.S. EPA/NGWA Fractured Rock Conference: State of the Science and Measuring Success in Remediation, Portland, Maine, September 24-26, 2007.

Praamsma, T., and Novakowski, K., 2007. Using δ18O and δD to investigate groundwater-surface water interaction and recharge in a gneissic terrain. 2007 U.S. EPA/NGWA Fractured Rock Conference: State of the Science and Measuring Success in Remediation, Portland, Maine, September 24-26, 2007.

Kozuskanich, J.C., Novakowski, K.S. and Anderson, B.A. 2007. Septic system impacts on drinking water quality in a small community with bedrock wells. A.D. Latornell Conservation Symposium, Alliston, Ontario, November 14-16, 2007.

Gleeson, T., Novakowski, K., Levison, J., and Kyser, K. 2007. Groundwater recharge in bedrock aquifers: rapid, localized and limited.
GSA Abstracts with Programs 39(6), Paper No. 69-1, GSA Annual Meeting, Denver, October 28-31, 2007.

Gleeson, T., Novakowski, K., and Kyser, K. 2007. Insignificant groundwater discharge in a fractured rock watershed.
2007 NGWA/U.S. EPA Fractured Rock Conference State of the Science and Measuring Success in Remediation, Portland, Maine, September 24-27, 2007.

Levison, J. and Novakowski, K. 2007. A novel tracer experiment conducted from ground surface in a fractured bedrock aquifer.
2007 NGWA/U.S. EPA Fractured Rock Conference: State of the Science and Measuring Success in Remediation, Portland, Maine, September 24-26, 2007.

Schauerte, M., Novakowski, K.S., and Moore B., 2007. A Comparison of a fully numerical solution and a semi-numerical solution based on streamlines for the simulation of transport in fractured rock. 2007
NGWA/U.S. EPA Fractured Rock Conference: State of the Science and Measuring Success in Remediation, Portland, Maine, September 24-26,
2007.

Novakowski, K.S., Hachey, J., Melaney, M., Schuaerte, M., and Moore, B. 2006. Results of recent tracer experiments conducted at increasing scale in a fractured dolomitic aquifer. GSA Abstracts with Programs, 38(6), GSA Annual Meeting, Oct. 22-25, Philadelphia, PA.

Levison, J., and Novakowski, K. 2006. Agricultural impacts on groundwater in fractured rock - Tay River watershed. GSA Abstracts with Programs, 38(6), GSA Annual Meeting, Oct. 22-25, Philadelphia, PA. 

Gleeson, T., and Novakowski, K. 2006. Lineaments as recharge barriers in a fractured bedrock aquifer. GSA Abstracts with Programs, 38(6), GSA Annual Meeting, Oct. 22-25, Philadelphia, PA.

Praamsma, T., and Novakowski, K. 2006. Using 18O and 2H to investigate complex groundwater-surface water interaction and recharge in a gneissic terrain, Perth, Ontario. GSA Abstracts with Programs, 38(6), GSA Annual Meeting, Oct. 22-25, Philadelphia, PA.

Praamsma, T., and Novakowski, K.S. 2006. Groundwater-surface water interaction in a fractured bedrock environment, Perth, Ontario, 41st Central Canadian Symposium on Water Quality Research, Canadian Association on Water Quality and National Water Research Institute, Burlington, ON, Canada, 13-14 February, 2006.

Levison, J.K., and Novakowski, K.S. 2006. Agricultural impacts on groundwater in fractured bedrock - Tay River Valley watershed,
41st Central Canadian Symposium on Water Quality Research, Canadian Association on Water Quality and National Water Research Institute, Burlington, ON, Canada, 13-14 February, 2006.

Yungwirth, G.A., Novakowski, K.S., Ross, N. 2005. The impact of biofilms on the process of back diffusion from a contaminated rock matrix, Eos Trans. AGU, 86(52), H51F-0432.

Melaney, M. A., and Novakowski, K. 2005. The results of a radial divergent tracer experiment conducted over the full thickness of a horizontally fractured dolomite, Eos Trans. AGU, 86(52),
H21C-1361.

West, A.C.F. and Novakowski, K.S. 2005. How well does fracture set characterization reduce uncertainty in capture zone size for wells situated in sedimentary bedrock aquifers?, Eos Trans. AGU, 86(52), H13A-1327. 

Hachey, J., and Novakowski, K. 2005. Large-scale tracer experiments and the use of effective parameters in fractured bedrock aquifers. 2005 NGWA Focus Conference on Eastern Regional Groundwater Issues, Portland, Maine, September 26-27, 2005.

Praamsma, T.W. and Novakowski, K.S. 2005. Groundwater-surface water interaction in a fractured bedrock environment, Perth, Ontario, A.D. Latornell Conservation Symposium, Alliston, Ontario, Nov. 16-18, 2005.

Milloy, C. and Novakowski, K. 2005. Recharge to a fractured bedrock aquifer in the Tay River watershed, Perth, Ontario. A.D. Latornell Conservation Symposium, Alliston, Ontario, Nov. 16-18, 2005.

Milloy, C., and Novakowski, K. 2005. Groundwater recharge in the Gneissic-Marble Terrain underlying the central part of the Tay River Watershed, Ontario, Canada. 2005 NGWA Focus Conference on Eastern Regional Groundwater Issues, Portland, Maine, September 26-27, 2005.

Charbonneau, A.M., Novakowski, K.S., and Ross, N., 2004. The effect of biofilm development on solute diffusion in low permeability rock. Presented at the Thirty-Ninth Canadian Symposium On Water Quality Research, February 9 and 10, 2004, Canada Centre for Inland Waters, Burlington, ON.

West, A.C.F. and Novakowski, K.S., 2004. A method to determine the spacing and transmissivity statistics of 'conductive" fractures in which the criterion distinguishing between conductive and non-conductive fractures is sliding scale. Eos, 85(17), JA205.

Charbonneau, A.M., Novakowski, K.S., and Ross, N., 2004.
A semi-analytical model to describe the effect of biofilm development on solute diffusion in low-permeability rock. Eos, 85(17), JA205.

West, M. R., Kueper, B. H., and Novakowski, K.S., 2004.
Semi-analytical solutions for solute transport in fractured porous media using a finite width strip source. Eos, 85(17), JA205.

Novakowski, K., and Stephenson, K, M., 2003. The Analysis of pulse interference tests conducted in a fractured rock aquifer bounded by a constant free surface. GSA Abstracts with Programs, 35(6), GSA Annual Meeting, Nov. 2-5, Seattle, WA.

West, A.C.F. and Novakowski, K.S., 2003. An analysis of core log quality and hydraulic test interval length on estimation of fracture aperture statistics. Eos, 83(48), F359

Novakowski, K., 2002. The hydrogeology of the Niagara Falls area: An historical perspective with a view to the future. Abstract in Proceedings of the 3rd Joint IAH-CGS Ground and Water Conference, Niagara Falls, Oct 20-23, 2002.

Novakowski, K., 2002. Comparison of the results of borehole geophysical measurements to detailed hydraulic characterization in fractured rock. GSA Abstracts with Programs, 34(6), GSA Annual Meeting, Oct. 27-30, Denver, CO.

Novakowski, K., Lapcevic, P., and Rotea, A. 2001. Measuring the vertical permeability of horizontally-fractured rock. GSA Abstracts with Programs, 32(7), GSA Annual Meeting, Nov. 4-8, Boston, MA.

Novakowski, K., 2001. Using the Thiem equation to interpret hydraulic tests conducted in rock of moderate to low permeability. Eos, 82(47), F359. 

Novakowski, K., Lapcevic, P., Voralek, J., and Bickerton, G. 2000. Measuring radial solute transport in a discrete fracture at the macroscopic scale. Eos, 81(48), F519.

Langer, V., Novakowski, K., and Woodbury, A. 1999. An investigation of heterogeneity of porosity in a fractured horizontally-stratified dolostone formation and it's implication on mass transport. Eos, 80(17), S137.

Langer, V., Novakowski, K., and Woodbury, A. 1999.Diffusion experiments with trichloroethene (TCE) through stylolitic dolostone. Eos, 80(17), S133.

Lapcevic, P., Novakowski, K., and Voralek, J. 1999. Determination of groundwater velocity in fractured media using the point dilution method. Eos, 80(46), F478.

Lapcevic, P., and Novakowski, K., 1998. A Conceptual Model for Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport at the Site-Specific Scale in a Fractured Dolomite: A Case Study of the Smithville PCB Site in Southern Ontario. SEPM Research Conference: Fluid Flow in Carbonates: Interdisciplinary Approaches, Door County, Wisconsin, Sept. 20 -24.

Novakowski, K., Brown, A., Lapcevic P., Lesage S., and Ketcheson, D. 1998.Estimating DNAPL penetration in fractured sedimentary rock having horizontal stratification. Abstract for 1st International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, May 18-21, Monterey, California.

Lapcevic, P., and Novakowski, K. 1998.A geostatistical interpretation of the fracture distribution and transmissivity in the Lockport Dolostone underlying Smithville, Ontario. Eos, 79(17), S134.

Piggott, A., Moltyaner, G., Yamazaki, L., and Novakowski, K. 1998. Preliminary characterization of fracturing at the site of the Chalk River Laboratories. Eos, 79(17), S134.

Bickerton, G.S., and Novakowski, K. S. 1998. A hybrid model for delineating capture zones in fractured sedimentary rock. GSA Abstracts with Programs, 30(7), GSA Annual Meeting, Oct. 26-29, Toronto, Ontario.

Zanini, L., Novakowski, K. S., Lapcevic, P., Bickerton, G. S., Voralek, J., and Talbot, C. 1998. Regional groundwater flow in the fractured dolomite underlying Smithville, Ontario as inferred from combined hydrogeological and geochemical measurements. GSA Abstracts with Programs, 30(7), GSA Annual Meeting, Oct. 26-29, Toronto, Ontario. 

Novakowski, K., and Bickerton, G. 1997. Inverse simulation of tracer experiments conducted with multiple tracer species in a dual-porosity Dolostone. Eos, 78(17), S138.

Novakowski, K., and Lapcevic, P. 1996. Determining the distribution of transmissivity in discretely-fractured rock using variable packer spacing. Eos, 77(46), F238.

Novakowski, K., Lapcevic, P., Voralek, J., Hoag, R, and Bickerton, G. 1995. The Injection-Drift Method for Measuring the Transport Properties of a Formation using a Single Well. Eos, 76(46), F238.

Harvey, F.E., Rudolph, D.L., Frape, S.K., Novakowski, K.S., and Lee, D.R. 1994. The impact of groundwater inflow on Hamilton Harbour, Geological Association of Canada/Mineralogical Association of Canada, Annual Meeting, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, May 16-18, Program with Abstracts, Vol. 19, p. A48.

Novakowski, K.S. 1994. Interpretation of slug tests conducted under shut-in conditions in the presence of finite-thickness skin and double porosity. Eos, 75(16), 152.

Piggott, A.R., Bobba, A.G., and Novakowksi, K.S. 1994. Identifying groundwater recharge by numerical model calibration. Eos, 75(16), 159.

Novakowski, K.S., Lapcevic, P.A., and Voralek, J. 1994. The results of a tracer experiment conducted in a discrete rock fracture under conditions of natural gradient. AGU Chapman Conference "Aqueous and Multiphase Transport in Fractured Rock", Burlington, Vt., Sept. 12-14, p. 18.

Ketcheson, D.R., and Novakowski, K.S. 1994. Velocity correction for borehole dilution analysis. AGU Chapman Conference "Aqueous and Multiphase Transport in Fractured Rock", Burlington, Vt., Sept. 12-14, p. 18.

Xu H., Durham, L., Lesage, S., and Novakowski, K. 1994. The use of humic acids to enhance the removal of aromatic hydrocarbons from aquifers contaminated with petroleum products. Part I: Laboratory Studies. Presented at the "Fourth Annual Symposium on Groundwater and Soil Remediation", Calgary Alberta. September 21-23. 

Novakowski, K. 1994. Tracer experiments conducted at a shallow depth in a discrete fracture in a shale and dolostone formation. Presented at the "2nd Annual Tracer Workshop", Austin, Texas. Nov. 13-14.

Novakowski, K.S., Reichart, T.M., and Lapcevic, P.A. 1993. Measuring the vertical permeability of horizontally-stratified sedimentary rocks. 28th Annual Meeting of the Northeastern Section of the Geological Society of America, Burlington, VT, March 22-24, pp. 68.

Novakowski, K.S., Lapcevic, P.A., and Voralek, J. 1993. Conducting tracer experiments in fractured rock under conditions of natural flow. 1993 Annual Meeting of the Geological Society of America, Boston, MA, Oct. 25-28, pp A-486. 

Harris, S.M., Novakowski, K.S., and Thomson, N.R. 1993. Analysis of shut-in and constant head tests conducted in shallow fractured clay till. Annual Meeting of the Geological Society of America, Boston, MA, Oct. 25-28, pp A-257.

Harris, S.M., Thomson, N.R., and Novakowski, K.S. 1993. Hydraulic testing and analysis of flow in shallow fractured clay till. Eos, 74(43), 282.

Novakowski, K.S., and Lapcevic, P.A. 1992. Field measurement of solute transport in a discrete fracture. Eos, 73(43), 164.

Markle, J.M., Rowe, R.K., and Novakowski, K.S. 1992. Analysis of constant head tests conducted in vertically fractured media. Eos, 73(43), 164.

Novakowski, K.S. 1991. Interpreting the results of constant-head tests conducted in low-permeability unconsolidated material. Eos, 72(44), 179.

Novakowski, K.S., Cherry, J.A., and Gillham, R.W. 1988. Field methodology in preparing for conducting a natural gradient tracer experiment in a discrete fracture. Eos, 69(44), 1186.

Novakowski, K.S., and Heystee, R.J. 1987. Regional hydrogeology of the Silurian and Ordovician sedimentary rock underlying Niagara Falls, Ontario. Internat. Assoc. Great Lakes Res., 30th Conf. May 11-14, 1987, pp A-47.

Novakowski, K.S. 1987. Determining the aperture distribution of a natural rock fracture using stepped-volume slug tests. Eos, 68(44), 1295.

Raven, K.G., and Novakowski, K.S. 1985. Field observations of the hydraulic and tracer-transport properties of a fracture in low-permeability rock. Eos, 66(46), 895. 

Novakowski, K.S., and Evans, G.V. 1984. A field example of measuring hydrodynamic dispersion in a single fracture. Eos, 65(16), 206.

Novakowski, K.S., and Flavelle, P.A. 1983. A groundwater tracer technique for evaluating the in situ solute transport characteristics of fractured rock. Eos, 64(18), 230.

Research Interests

Dr. Novakowski and his graduate students conduct research in the areas of fluid flow and contaminant migration in fractured rock. Recent work has focused on the field measurement and numerical simulation of aqueous phase contaminant transport in large discrete fractures which pervade the dolostones and limestones common to the sedimentary basins of North America.

Dr. Novakowski also develops semi-analytical and analytical-element models for the simulation of solute transport, the interpretation of hydraulic tests, and the design of capture zones in sparsely-fractured bedrock. Recently, Dr. Novakowski has become involved in collaborative research projects that are focused on understanding sustainable water supply and regional groundwater flow in complex fractured rock environments.

Graduate Students

Augustine, Natasha
Present - Ph.D. candidate
email: 15na24@queensu.ca

Bou Jaoude, Issam
Present - Ph.D. candidate
(co-supervised with B.Kueper)
email: 4ib5@queensu.ca

Plourde, Richard
Present - MASC candidate
email: Richard.Plourde@queensu.ca

Schauerte, Morgan
Present - Ph.D. candidate
email: 1mas@queensu.ca

Praamsma, Titia
Ph.D. June 2016
email: 3twp@queensu.ca

Yang, Fan
MASC May 2016
email: 13fy3@queensu.ca

Khader, Omar
Ph.D. May 2014
email: 8oaaak@queensu.ca

Mann, Vanessa
Ph.D. Nov 2012
email: 2vlm@queensu.ca

Miles, Owen
MASC October 2013
email: 11owm@queensu.ca

Grell, Stephanie
MASC June 2011

Worely, Jessica
MASC Augest 2012
email: 9jw65@queensu.ca

Elmhirst, Laura
MASC June 2011
email: Laura.Elmhirst@ce.queensu.ca

Kozuskanich, John
(co-supervised B.C. Anderson)
Ph.D. Feb 2011

Smith, Reid T
MASC Nov 2010

Trimper, Shawn
MASC Oct 2010
email: 9sat3@queensu.ca

Levison, Jana K
Ph.D. Sept 2009
email: 9jk11@queensu.ca